An analysis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders

Benefits and harms of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD Review question We reviewed the evidence of the effects of methylphenidate on the behaviour of children and adolescents with ADHD.

An analysis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders

Benefits and harms of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD Review question We reviewed the evidence of the effects of methylphenidate on the behaviour of children and adolescents with ADHD.

Background ADHD is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated childhood psychiatric disorders. Children diagnosed with ADHD find it hard to concentrate.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - Wikipedia

They are often hyperactive fidgety, unable to sit still for long periods and impulsive doing things without stopping to think. ADHD can make it difficult for children to do well at school, because they find it hard to follow instructions and to concentrate.

Their behavioural problems can interfere with their ability to get on well with family and friends, and they often get into more trouble than other children. Methylphenidate is the drug most often prescribed to treat children and adolescents with ADHD.

Study characteristics We found randomised controlled trials RCTs ; studies in which participants are randomly assigned to one of two or more treatment groupsinvolving 12, children or adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD.

Most of the trials compared methylphenidate to a placebo — something designed to look and taste the same as methylphenidate but with no active ingredient. Most trials were small and of low quality. Treatment generally lasted an average of 75 days range 1 to daysmaking it impossible to assess the long-term effects of methylphenidate.

The evidence is current to February Key results Findings suggest that methylphenidate might improve some of the core symptoms of ADHD — reducing hyperactivity and impulsivity, and helping children to concentrate.

Methylphenidate might also help to improve the general behaviour and quality of life of children with ADHD. However, we cannot be confident that the results accurately reflect the size of the benefit of methylphenidate. The evidence in this review of RCTs suggests that methylphenidate does not increase the risk of serious life threatening harms when used for periods of up to six months.

However, taking methylphenidate is associated with an increased risk of non-serious harms such as sleeping problems and decreased appetite.

Quality of the evidence The quality of the evidence was very low for all outcomes. It was possible for people in the trials to know which treatment the children were taking, the reporting of the results was not complete in many trials and for some outcomes the results varied across trials.

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These considerations limit our confidence in the overall results of the review. Conclusions At the moment, the quality of the available evidence means that we cannot say for sure whether taking methylphenidate will improve the lives of children and adolescents with ADHD.

Methylphenidiate is associated with a number of non-serious adverse events such as problems with sleeping and decreased appetite. Although we did not find evidence that there is an increased risk of serious adverse events, we need trials with longer follow-up to better assess the risk of serious adverse events in people who take methylphenidate over a long period of time.

An analysis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders

Given that methylphenidate is associated with adverse events, designing high quality trials is challenging. It can be easy for clinicians, researchers and participants to work out whether a child is in the experimental group receiving methylphenidate or in the control group receiving the placebo.

This is a serious risk of bias that can make us less confident in the results of a trial. One way to avoid this is to design trials that compare methylphenidate with a placebo that can produce similar adverse events, but which has no other active ingredient.

These trials are known as 'nocebo trials'. For ethical reasons, nocebo trials should first be undertaken with adults. Only if the results suggest that methylphenidate is effective for adults, should researchers consider recruiting children to trials with this design.

An analysis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders

The results of meta-analyses suggest that methylphenidate may improve teacher-reported ADHD symptoms, teacher-reported general behaviour, and parent-reported quality of life among children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. However, the low quality of the underpinning evidence means that we cannot be certain of the magnitude of the effects.

Within the short follow-up periods typical of the included trials, there is some evidence that methylphenidate is associated with increased risk of non-serious adverse events, such as sleep problems and decreased appetite, but no evidence that it increases risk of serious adverse events.

Better designed trials are needed to assess the benefits of methylphenidate.Overweight women limited their weight gain with a diet and exercise program during pregnancy, but it did not lower their rate of complications like gestational diabetes. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood.

Typically, children with ADHD find it difficult to pay attention, they are hyperactive and impulsive. ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood.

Children with ADHD have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (may act without thinking about what the result will be), and in some cases, are overly active. CHADD does not endorse or represent products, services, publication, medications or treatments.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition characterized by impulsive behavior, inattention, and hyperactivity. It's usually diagnosed in . Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

It is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior which is not appropriate for a person's age.

The symptoms appear before a person is twelve years old, are present for more than six months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such.

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