A study of the basic accounting concepts and procedures underlying the organization and reporting of financial information. Topics include the accounting cycle, the preparation of financial statements, the measurement and reporting of business income, and the valuation and presentation of assets and current liabilities. Emphasis is placed on the relevance of the business and economic information generated by the accounting process and how it is used in personal and business decision making.
Cognitive behavior therapy CBT has been shown to be an effective treatment, but is accessible to only a few. The present paper presents an overview of the field of ICBT for anxiety disorders and depression. We define ICBT and provide a brief report on the state of the evidence, including cost-effectiveness.
The main conclusion is that ICBT is an effective, well-documented and cost-effective treatment for anxiety disorders and depression.
It is ready for implementation on a large scale. This is due to superior treatment effects in combination with high safety. In general, long-term follow-up studies indicate that improvements gained after CBT endure over several years for example, see reference In combination with relatively low intervention costs, CBT is thus a highly promising treatment from a societal cost-effectiveness perspective.
However, accessibility to CBT is limited. Lack of trained therapists and remote location of outpatient clinics in areas with low population density result in few being offered effective psychological treatment in rural areas.
Building on the well-documented effects of self-help treatment for anxiety,20 the general idea was to administer CBT in the form of self-help over the Internet with online therapist contact. The results from the first RCT in which ICBT was tested for headache showed that this treatment was feasible and efficacious, with promising effect sizes.
To date, more than 25 RCTs have been conducted by independent research groups on anxiety disorders and depression alone. More specifically, we describe what ICBT is, Internet-based cognitive assessment system essay applications, the role of the therapist, and the current state of the evidence, including health economic data.
Finally, we discuss strengths and limitations of ICBT and potential future directions. These treatments have differed in several aspects, including technical solutions, degree of therapist contact, and diagnostic procedures.
Internationally, research groups in the Netherlands and Australia have also produced numerous studies on this format of ICBT. The general idea is that ICBT should reflect the content of conventional CBT, but is administered as a form of therapist-guided selfhelp delivered via the Internet.
The ICBT treatment consists of modules or chapters, each corresponding to a session in conventional CBT, which the patients gain gradual access to as they progress through the treatment.
The total amount of text is generally equivalent to text pages. As CBT is disorder- specific, in terms of treatment and treatment models, the content of the modules varies across disorders. Throughout the treatment, patients have regular contact with an online therapist that provides guidance in terms of feedback on homework exercises, advice on how to conduct the treatment, and answers to questions.
The therapist also provides surveillance of the pace of treatment progress and grants patient access to the text modules.
The therapist is highly trained in CBT, often a licensed psychologist, and has the same treatment responsibility as in conventional CBT. In general, there is no face-to-face or telephone contact between therapist and patient.
Along with the module content and the therapist contact, ICBT often also entails online worksheets, which the patient can use to report daily activities of relevance for the treatment, such as thoughts and emotions in certain situations.
The worksheets also provide an important information source for the therapist who can use these to follow the progress of the therapy. As the content of the treatment is disorder-specific, the diagnostic procedure prior to treatment start is of great importance.
In fact, as the structure of ICBT is much more static than face-to-face CBT, we view it as even more important that the patient is correctly diagnosed. That is, the psychologist does not have the same flexibility to compensate for misclassification and to adapt the content of the treatment once therapy has started.
Role of the therapist Several studies indicate that treatment outcome is improved when therapist contact is included in ICBT.
For example, a meta-analysis by Palmqvist and coworkers showed that there was a strong correlation between amount of therapist time spent in studies of ICBT and the improvement demonstrated posttreatment.
As the only way of communication is through e-mail—like text messages summing up to around 5 to 10 minutes per week, the most important func- tion of the therapist is to provide encouragement and to guide patients through the text material. In fact, 2 studies by Titov, Robinson, and coworkers, in which patients were randomly assigned to a skilled CBT therapist or to a technician without clinical experience, showed that participants in both treatment conditions made large and equivalent improvements.
Patient flow through a typical clinical ICBT process. Thus, it seems to be important to include therapist assistance in ICBT. However, judging from the evidence at hand it does not seem to be important that the therapist is highly skilled nor that a therapeutic alliance in the traditional sense is crucial for treatment success.
We believe that the firm structure of ICBT makes the between-therapist variability in terms of therapeutic skills, treatment adherence, and even online-interpersonal skills less important than in traditional face-toface CBT.The network-based system illustrated by the case study in the following section extends the above four-system model of assessment to include a globally shared .
Back to summary |Download this issue Nils LINDEFORS,MD, PhD Erik HEDMAN,PhD Brjánn LJÓTSSON,PhD Karolinska Institutet Department of Clinical Neuroscience Stockholm, SWEDEN Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety and depression by N.
Lindefors, E. Hedman, and B. Ljótsson, Sweden Anxiety disorders and depression are highly prevalent, often chronic if untreated, . INTRODUCTION. Assessment plays a major role in student learning. There are many new approaches to assessment with an emphasis on the process of .
Published: Mon, 5 Dec For this essay I have audited my leadership skills using theoretical models and referred to specific situations and experiences. This encompasses personal, academic and professional reflections and explores opportunities for my career paths and personal development with an Action Plan for the future.
Internet-based Cognitive Assessment System Essay Sample Experimentation and researches are continuously done nowadays in neuroscience regarding the different tests involved in cognitive assessment system.
You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article Internet-based CBT intervention for gamblers in Finland: Experiences from the field.