The steam engine manufactured by Ferdinand Verbiest at the Qing Court in
For a family tree, see: Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors According to several ancient Chinese records, Yu was the 8th great-grandson of the Yellow Emperor: When Yu was a child, his father Gun moved the people east toward the Central Plain.
Yu is thus believed to have grown up on the slopes of Mount Song, just south of the Yellow River. Great Flood China During the reign of king Yaothe Chinese heartland was frequently plagued by floods that prevented further economic and social development. He spent more than nine years building a series of dikes and dams along the riverbanks, but all of this was ineffective, despite or because of the great number and size of these dikes and the use of a special self-expanding soil.
As an adult, Yu continued his father's work and made a careful study of the river systems in an attempt to learn why his father's great efforts had failed.
Collaborating with Houjia semi-mythical agricultural master about whom little is concretely known, Yu successfully devised a system of flood controls that were crucial in establishing the prosperity of the Chinese heartland. Instead of directly damming the rivers' flow, Yu made a system of irrigation canals which relieved floodwater into fields, as well as spending great effort dredging the riverbeds.
The dredging and irrigation were successful, and allowed ancient Chinese culture to flourish along the Yellow RiverWei Riverand other waterways of the Chinese heartland.
In particular, Mount Longmen along the Yellow River had a very narrow channel which blocked water from flowing freely east toward the ocean. Yu is said to have brought a large number of workers to open up this channel, which has been known ever since as "Yu's Gateway" Chinese: For example, his hands were said to be thickly callusedand his feet were completely covered with callus.
In one common story, Yu had only been married four days when he was given the task of fighting the flood.
He said goodbye to his wife, saying that he did not know when he would return. During the thirteen years of flooding, he passed by his own family's doorstep three times, but each time he did not return inside his own home. The first time he passed, he heard that his wife was in labor.
The second time he passed by, his son could already call out to his father. His family urged him to return home, but he said it was impossible as the flood was still going on.
The third time Yu was passing by, his son was older than ten years old. Each time, Yu refused to go in the door, saying that as the flood was rendering countless number of people homeless, he could not rest.
The Nine Provinces[ edit ] Main articles: King Shunwho reigned after Yao, was so impressed by Yu's engineering work and diligence that he passed the throne to Yu instead of to his own son.
Yu is said to have initially declined the throne, but was so popular with other local lords and chiefs that he agreed to become the new emperor, at the age of fifty-three. He established a capital at Anyi Chinese: According to his Yu Gong treatise in the Book of DocumentsYu divided the Chinese "world" into nine zhou or provinces.
Once he had received bronze from these nine territories, he created ding vessels called the Nine Tripod Cauldrons.
A number of emperors in imperial times travelled there to perform ceremonies in his honor, notably Qin Shi Huang. No inscriptions on artifacts dated to the supposed era of Yu, or the later oracle bones, contain any mention of Yu.
The first archeological evidence of Yu comes from vessels made about a thousand years after his supposed death, during the Western Zhou dynasty. The Doubting Antiquity School of early 20th-century historians, for example, theorised that Yu was not a person in the earliest legends, but a god or mythical animal, who was connected with water and possibly with the mythical Dragon Kings and their control over water.
According to this theory, Yu as god or animal was represented on ceremonial bronzeware by the early Xia people, and by the start of the Zhou Dynastythe legendary figure had morphed into the first man, who could control water, and it was only during the Zhou Dynasty that the legendary figures that now precede Yu were added to the orthodox legendary lineage.
According to the Chinese legend Yu the Great was a man-god. Archaeological evidence of a large outburst flood on the Yellow River has been dated to about BCE. This coincides with new cultures all along the Yellow River. The water control problems after the initial flooding could plausibly have lasted for some twenty years.Introduction.
The contacts between China and Europe in the period – (which corresponds to the late Ming and the early and mid-Qing dynasties) include a large variety of encounters but primarily consist of the encounter of European Christianity with China.
In "The Great Encounter", Professor Mungello tried to cover a period twice as long in a space half as much. That was made possible by writing the book in a different format: not a monograph loaded with inline references and provided with a Chinese-character glossary at the end, and targeting readers such as history grad students, but a book Reviews: 7.
The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China is part of the history of relations between China and the Western initiativeblog.com missionary efforts and other work of the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, between the 16th and 17th century played a significant role in continuing the transmission of knowledge, science, and culture between China and the West, and influenced Christian culture in Chinese.
A fourth edition of this book is now available.
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xxii, , , with a foreword by Richard J. Cushing, black & white frontispiece.
For the Chinese, the drive toward growing political and economic power is part of an ongoing effort to restore China's past greatness and remove the lingering memories of history's humiliations.