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Religion, he said, was the first human attempt to systematically explain the world. Durkheim thought that religious rationality would wither away in modern times for him, the early twentieth century because scientific rationality would replace it, by virtue of its superior explanatory power.
Alas, he seems to have gotten this one wrong.
But Durkheim was right about the genealogy of thought. Modern religion is an elaboration of a belief in magic. In the absence of a scientific explanation of events and institutions, faith in magical powers, fetishization of nature, and overinterpretation of random variation are inevitable.
Durkheim expected religion to fall out of fashion as the outright belief in magic had, for the same reason. For anyone with the least education, the superior power of scientific thinking is obvious.
Only a willful ignorance could lead to any other conclusion. This is where we find ourselves. We live in a world that wants the fruits of scientific labor, but refuses the mental discipline of scientific rationality. Just like children, we want to have our cake and to eat it too. I Am Alone, by T.
Religions have persisted, despite their inability to explain the modern world. Here, in fact, we have a stunning reversal: Many will find this uncertainty anxiety-provoking, and will look around for a convenient escape. As social organizations, religions have a dramatic power that hides their essential irrationality.
They persist today because they are so effective at constructing group identities and at setting up conflict between the in- and out-groups. For all religions, there is an "us" and a "them. It is no accident that the history of world religions is a history of violence, hatred and intolerance.
And, being liars, and thus, evil, they forfeit their rights as equal members of the community. This is the poisonous logic of religious irrationality. All modern religions are ideological: Complete acceptance is the only way to escape the uncertainty of modernity.
For this reason, religion without fanaticism is impossible. Anyone whose mind is trapped inside such a mental prison will be susceptible to extreme forms of behavior. All religions foment their own kind of holy war. The reader might point out that some believers are more bland and mild than fire and brimstone.
Those whose devotion is moderate are, perhaps, only cowardly fanatics. They want the fellowship and the security but ignore the logic of the system to which they grudgingly adhere.
They may be more numerous than the overt fanatics, but they will always have less influence. This is simply the operation of the rule of the lowest common denominator; in response to uncertainty, the exaggerated sense of confidence of the zealot will win over the crowd.
If you doubt that this is true, consider modern politics. The same dynamic applies. This is why our political system has given birth to the "war on drugs" and "family values.
If you do not think this is a fair definition of faith, look it up. I got this from the Merriam-Webster online dictionary, item 2b. If every assertion were subject to question, the faithful would have to admit that they hold their beliefs without rational basis.
If the public sphere were to promote the free contest of ideas, religious belief would wither under the scrutiny of scientific rationality, just as Durkheim expected.A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.A world view can include natural philosophy; fundamental, existential, and normative postulates; or themes, values, emotions, and ethics.
The term is a calque of the German word Weltanschauung [ˈvɛltʔanˌʃaʊ.ʊŋ. Essay examples for college. Free sample essays. title page bibliography page proofreading revision. WHAT, then, is the rightful limit to the sovereignty of the individual over himself?Where does the authority of society begin?
How much of human life should be assigned to individuality, and how much to society? 1: Each will receive its proper share, if each has that which more particularly concerns it.
BOW DOWN Antiracism, Our Flawed New Religion. Opposition to racism used to be a political stance. Now it has every marking of a religion, with both good and deleterious effects on American society.
initiativeblog.com is a growing collection of church membership and religion adherent statistics. Over 44, statistics for over 4, faith groups from all world religions, major religions and most minor religions, listing number of adherents, number of congregations, and number of countries.
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