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Nok sculpture, terracotta The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between BC and ADproducing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in Nri and Aguleriwhere the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan.
Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century,  and its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures.
Middle Ages — Further information: History of Nigeria — Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo. The Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria.
Benin's power lasted between the 15th and 19th centuries. Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese and further. The territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria; it lasted until the break-up of the Empire into various European colonies.
Benin City in the 17th century with the Oba of Benin in procession. This image appeared in a European book, Description of Africa, published in Amsterdam in Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western, central and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Spanish and Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lagos and in Calabar.
Europeans traded goods with peoples at the coast; coastal trade with Europeans also marked the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade.
A number of slave routes were established throughout Nigeria linking the hinterland areas with the major coastal ports. Some of the more prolific slave traders were linked with the Oyo Empire in the southwest, the Aro Confederacy in the southeast and the Sokoto Caliphate in the north.
The use of slave labor was extensive, especially in agriculture. British Nigeria — Emir of Kano, with cavalry, photographed in King Duke of Calabar in full dress published The slave trade was engaged in by European state and non-state actors such as Great Britainthe NetherlandsPortugal and private companies, as well as various African states and non-state actors.
With rising anti-slavery sentiment at home and changing economic realities, Great Britain outlawed the international slave trade in Following the Napoleonic WarsGreat Britain established the West Africa Squadron in an attempt to halt the international traffic in slaves.
Britain intervened in the Lagos Kingship power struggle by bombarding Lagos indeposing the slave trade friendly Oba Kosoko, helping to install the amenable Oba Akitoyeand signing the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos on 1 January British missionaries expanded their operations and travelled further inland.
InBritish claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference. In the company's territory came under the control of the British government, which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria.
On 1 JanuaryNigeria became a British protectorateand part of the British Empirethe foremost world power at the time. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the independent kingdoms of what would become Nigeria fought a number of conflicts against the British Empire's efforts to expand its territory.
By war, the British conquered Benin inand, in the Anglo-Aro War —defeated other opponents. The restraint or conquest of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule.
Inhabitants of the southern region sustained more interaction, economic and cultural, with the British and other Europeans owing to the coastal economy. Christian missions established Western educational institutions in the Protectorates. Under Britain's policy of indirect rule and validation of Islamic tradition, the Crown did not encourage the operation of Christian missions in the northern, Islamic part of the country.
By independence inregional differences in modern educational access were marked.Religions of the world Numbers of adherents of major religions, their geographical distribution, date founded, and sacred texts. Number of adherents of world religions.
Religion and Culture in Modern Japan Due to the younger generation of Japan's increasing apathy towards religion, Japan's rich culture, identity, and national pride is in jeopardy.
This can be concluded by reviewing the connection between religion and culture through Japanese history, and comparing it to the state of the two in modern Japan.
Canada is a Commonwealth realm in which the head of state is shared with 15 other countries. As such, Canada follows the United Kingdom's succession laws for its monarch, which bar Roman Catholics from inheriting the throne.
Within Canada, the Queen's title includes the phrases "By the Grace of God" and "Defender of the Faith."Christmas and Easter are nationwide holidays, and while Jews.
Religions Census - The US census bureau has not questioned Americans about religion since s but some data had been collected by the federal government for about a century before that.
The U.S. Census Bureau has not asked questions about religion since the s, but the federal government did gather some information about religion for about a century before that. Religion in Sub-Saharan Africa has changed and evolved over the last two to three thousand years in many different ways.
While the traditions depicted in this chart provide examples of those that exist today, and that were affected by the expansion of European colonialism in the 19th century, peoples living in the vast area south of the Sahara desert had already sustained rich systems of.