It was born in as an open source project hosted on SourceForge, a development repository for free software. A month later, on July 3, Sugar Open Source version 1. In Octobermore than Up until that moment, the project has been developed by the company working close to the development community and releasing both open source Community Edition and commercial versions.
McBroom had been with United Airlines for 27 years; he was one of the airline's most senior pilots with more than 27, hours of flight time, of which about 5, hours had been as a DC-8 captain. Beebe had been with the airline for 13 years and had logged more than 5, flight hours.
Mendenhall had accrued close to 3, flight hours and had been with the airline for 11 years. The first officer and flight engineer had over 2, hours of flying experience between them in the DC The estimated time en route was 2 hours and 26 minutes. The planned arrival time in Portland was As the landing gear was being lowered on approach to Portland International Airport, the crew felt an abnormal vibration and yaw of the aircraft as well as a lack of an indicator light showing the gear was lowered successfully.
The crew requested a holding pattern to diagnose the problem, and for approximately the next hour the crew worked to identify the status of the landing gear and prepare for a potential emergency landing. During this time, none of the three cockpit flight crew effectively monitored the fuel levels, which was exacerbated by the fact that the gear was down with the flaps at 15 degrees during the entire hour-long holding maneuver, significantly increasing fuel burn rate.
As the crew prepared for a final approach for an emergency landing into Portland, they lost the number one and number two engines to flameoutat which point a Mayday was declared.
This was the last radio transmission from Flight to Air Traffic Control. The plane crashed into a wooded section of a populated area of suburban Portland about 6 nautical miles southeast of the airport.
Airborne aircraft from this unit HH-1H Huey helicopters were immediately diverted to the crash scene and proceeded to transport many of the survivors to local hospitals.
Crash investigation and report[ edit ] The NTSB investigation revealed that when the landing gear was lowered, a loud thump was heard.
That unusual sound was accompanied by abnormal vibration and yaw of the aircraft. The right main landing gear retract cylinder assembly had failed due to corrosion, and that allowed the right gear to free fall. Those unusual indications loud noise, vibration, yaw, and no green light led the captain to abort the landing, so that they would have time to diagnose the problem and prepare the passengers for an emergency landing.
While the decision to abort the landing was prudent, the accident occurred because the flight crew became so absorbed with diagnosing the problem that they failed to monitor their fuel state and calculate a time when they needed to return to land or risk fuel exhaustion.
This resulted in fuel exhaustion to all engines. His inattention resulted from preoccupation with a landing gear malfunction and preparations for a possible landing emergency.
The NTSB also determined the following contributing factor: The fuel situation was known to be on the minds of the pilot and crew to some degree. Transcripts of cockpit recordings confirm this. The problem was not widely known in part because commercial aircraft are expected to fly with not less than a minute reserve of fuel at all times.
The gauge problem is addressed, though obliquely, in one of the safety board's recommendations: Issue an Operations Alert Bulletin to have FAA inspectors assure that crew training stresses differences in fuel-quantity measuring instruments and that crews flying with the new system are made aware of the possibility of misinterpretation of gauge readings.
Class II--Priority Action A While the totalizer fuel gauge issue might have contributed to the crew's confusion toward the end of the flight, the NTSB report emphasized that the captain should never have allowed such a situation to develop in the first place.
The NTSB made the following recommendation to specifically address that concern: Issue an operations bulletin to all air carrier operations inspectors directing them to urge their assigned operators to ensure that their flightcrews are indoctrinated in principles of flightdeck resource managementwith particular emphasis on the merits of participative management for captains and assertiveness training for other cockpit crewmembers.
Class II, Priority Action X Aftermath[ edit ] This last NTSB recommendation following the incident, addressing flightdeck resource management problems, was the genesis for major changes in the way airline crewmembers were trained.
This new type of training addressed behavioral management challenges such as poor crew coordination, loss of situational awareness, and judgment errors frequently observed in aviation accidents.
Within weeks of the NTSB recommendation, NASA held a conference to bring government and industry experts together to examine the potential merits of this training.
The CRM program is now used throughout the world, prompting some to call the United accident one of the most important in aviation history. He spent his remaining years battling numerous health issues related to injuries sustained in the crash as well as lung and prostate cancer.Please note: Do not use your browser's back button.
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